Providing Recognition- involves giving students rewards or praise for accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal; deals with attitudes and beliefs.

generalizations about rewards:
1. rewards do not necessarily have negative effects on intrinsic motivation.
2. rewards are most effective when they are contingent upon the attainment of some standard of performance.
3. abstract recognition is more effective in improving performance than are tangible rewards.

classroom recommendations:
1. personalize recognition- a good time to do this is following the achievement of a specific performance goal.
2. use the pause-prompt-praise strategy- ask the student to pause during the difficult task, discuss the difficulty of the task, give the student specific suggestions on ways to improve the performance, if student improves, you provide praise.
3. use concrete symbols of recognition- use awards, certificates, or coupons.

Ref: Classroom Instruction That Works, Hill & Flynn, 2006.


research has shown that student satisfaction and enjoyment of learning is greater when classroom environments are perceived as encouraging student involvement (Fry & Coe, 1980; Trickett and Moos, 1974), and a sense of personal responsibility (Ryan, 1982; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986), and when students themselves are committed to a sense of learning (Nicholls, 1985).


Ellie McAffee, ch. 4

Guidelines for Effective Praise
Effective Praise…
1. Is delivered contingently.
2. Specifies the particulars.
3. Provides information.
4. Orients students toward problems solving.
5. Uses prior accomplishments.
6. Is given for noteworthy effort.
7. Attributes success to effort.
8. Focuses student attention.


Ineffective Praise…
1. Is delivered randomly.
2. Shows bland uniformity.
3. Rewards mere participation.
4. Provides no information.
5. Orients students toward comparing and competing.
6. Is given without regard to effort or accomplishment.
7. Attributes success to external reasons.
8. Fosters exogenous attributions.




Prresented by Jane Cook,
EASTCONN Literacy & Technology Coach
Adapted from: www.sanjuan.edu/files/filesystem/Marzano.pps
People generally attribute success at any given task to one of four causes:
Effort
Other people
Ability
Luck
§ Three of these four beliefs ultimately inhibit achievement – (Covington 1983,1985)

Examples of Recognition:
Teacher Recognition

Example 3: “You really did a good job working through all of the steps and checking your answers for this problem. I know you’ve had difficulties with multi-step calculations before and sometimes settled for getting any answer down on paper, even if it wasn’t correct. Your determination with the third task really showed.”


Example 4: “Good job. Jackson. Keep it up.”



June Preszler
TIE
September of 2007
Research Findings:


Ò Not all students know the connection between effort and achievement
Ò (Seligman, 1990,1994; Urdan, Migley, & Anderman, 1998)


Online Certificates for recognition
Ò http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/templates
Ò http://www.educationoasis.com/teacher_tools/Awards/awards_certificates.htm
Ò http://www.printablecertificateawards.com
Ò http://www.yahoo.americangreetings.com/